Chantal J. Darquenne, Ph.D.

Chantal Darquenne, PhD

Adjunct Professor

UCSD Department of Medicine
9500 Gilman Dr., 0931
La Jolla, CA 92093-0931

Email: cdarquenne@ucsd.edu

Education

1990 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, M.Sc.(hons), Mechanical Engineering (fluid dynamics)
1995 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, Ph.D. (hons), Applied Science

Research & Professional Experience

1990 - 91 Researcher, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode St Genèse, Belgium
1991 - 93 Ph. D. student, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium (in collaboration with the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode St Genèse, Belgium)
1993 - 95 Postgraduate Researcher and Ph. D. student, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium (in collaboration with the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode St Genèse, Belgium)
1995 - 97 Postgraduate Research Physiologist, University of California, San Diego
1998 - 2003 Assistant Research Physiologist, University of California, San Diego
2003 - Associate Adjunct Professor, University of California, San Diego
2002 - Professor, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
2006 - Adjunct Member, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute
Principal Investigator: Modeling of Particle Deposition in Mammalian Lungs, Modeling of Aerosol Transport in Alveolated Airways, Spatial targeting of aerosol in the human lung: the effect of the carrier gas.

Co-Investigator: Pulmonary Deposition of Aerosol in Microgravity, Deposition of 0.5 to 2 Micron Aerosol in the Human Lung.

Research Focus

My research focuses on the fate of aerosols in the human lung. One of my main interests is to better understand where particles go in the lung and where they actually deposit. This is an important issue whether the aerosol results from atmospheric pollution, occupational exposure or inhalation therapy. Indeed, the deposition of aerosols from the environment in the lung is a health risk, at least in some subjects. Studies have shown correlations between the amount of particles present in the air and respiratory as well as cardiovascular diseases. The use of aerosols in clinical applications is also growing rapidly. Today, aerosol therapy extends from the treatment of rhinitis to potentially gene therapy of incurable diseases. By understanding the role of various parameters such as aerosol characteristics, breathing patterns and lung morphology, aerosolized drugs can be targeted to relatively well-defined regions of the lung that are diseased. This will allow for increase the efficiency of the drug while decreasing the extent of unwanted side effects. Another major part of my research consists in using particles as a tool to probe different regions of the lung to study mixing mechanisms. Particles have very low diffusion coefficient compared to gases. Therefore they can act as a “non-diffusing gas” and be used to study mixing processes that are not diffusive in origin.

Gravity plays an important role in the transport of aerosols in the human lung. We have studied its role using both an experimental and a computational approach. In the experimental approach, we have performed a comprehensive study of aerosol deposition and dispersion in the altered gravity environment offered by the NASA Microgravity Research Aircraft during parabolic flights. Such flights provide periods of microgravity as well as hypergravity during which measurements can be made. We are now starting a new series of experiments aboard the KC-135 to further study the complex mixing mechanisms that take place in the alveolar region of the lung. In parallel to the experimental approach, we have developed a computational research program that aims at modeling the transport of aerosol in a complex structure of alveolated ducts representative of the human acinus. This model allows us to test numerous hypotheses of how deposition occurs at the alveolar level. The results from the simulations are directly compared with those obtained experimentally so that we can avoid the development of models that are clearly incorrect.

Honors & Awards

1991 - 93 European Space Agency Fellowship.
1993 - 95 Recipient of a competitive award from the Ministère de la Région Wallonne (Belgium) in the framework of the program FIRST.
1995 - 96 Grant-in-aid as a research scholar from the Fulbright program.
1998 - 01 Parker B. Francis Fellowship in Pulmonary Research.
2000 - 02 Recipient of a young investigator award from the American Lung Association of California (research grant).

Selected Publications

(For a complete list plus links to abstracts and text of lab publications, please see the Physiology/NASA Lab Publications page)
  1. Darquenne C. and M. Paiva. One-dimensional simulation of aerosol transport and deposition in the human lung. J. Appl. Physiol., 77:2889-2898, 1994.
  2. Darquenne C. and M. Paiva. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of aerosol transport and deposition in alveolar zone of human lung. J. Appl. Physiol., 80:1401-1414, 1996.
  3. Darquenne C., P. Brand, J. Heyder and M. Paiva. Aerosol dispersion in human lung: comparison between numerical simulations and experiments for bolus tests. J. Appl. Physiol., 83:966-974,1997.
  4. Darquenne, C., M. Paiva, J.B. West, and G.K. Prisk. Effect of microgravity and hypergravity on deposition of 0.5-to 3-m-diameter aerosol in the human lung. J. Appl. Physiol., 83: 2029-2036, 1997.
  5. Darquenne C., and M. Paiva. Gas and Particle Transport in the Lung. Complexities in Structure and Function of the Lung. M.P. Hlastala and H.T. Robertson (eds). Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, pp 297-323, 1998.
  6. Darquenne, C., J.B. West, and G.K. Prisk. Deposition and dispersion of 1 m aerosol boluses in the human lung: effect of micro- and hypergravity. J. Appl. Physiol., 85: 1252-1259, 1998.
  7. Verbanck, S., C. Darquenne, G.K. Prisk, W. Vincken, and M. Paiva. A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. J. Appl. Physiol., 86:1067-1074, 1999.
  8. Darquenne, C., J.B. West, and G.K. Prisk. Dispersion of 0.5-2 m aerosol in G and hypergravity as a probe of convective inhomogeneity in the lung. J. Appl. Physiol., 86:1402-1409, 1999.
  9. Darquenne, C., M. Paiva, and G. K. Prisk. Effect of gravity on aerosol dispersion and deposition in the human lung after periods of breath-holding. J. Appl. Physiol., 89:1787-1792, 2000.
  10. Darquenne, C. A realistic two-dimensional model of aerosol transport and deposition in the alveolar zone of the human lung. J. Aerosol Sci. 32:1161-1174, 2001.
  11. Darquenne C. Aerosol Transport in the Lung. Gravity and the Lung: Lessons from Microgravity. G.K. Prisk, M. Paiva and J.B. West (eds). Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 117-148, 2001.
  12. Mills, C.N., C. Darquenne, and G.K. Prisk. Mode shift of an inhaled aerosol bolus is correlated with flow sequencing in the human lung. J. Appl. Physiol., 92:1232-1238, 2002.
  13. Darquenne, C. Heterogeneity of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model of human alveolated airways. J. Aerosol Sci., 33:1261-1278, 2002.
  14. Dutrieue, B., M. Paiva, S. Verbanck, M. Le Gouic, C. Darquenne and G. Kim Prisk. Tidal volume single breath washin of SF6 and CH4 in transient microgravity. J. Appl. Physiol., 94:75-82, 2003.
  15. Darquenne, C. and G.K. Prisk. Effect of gravitational sedimentation on simulated aerosol dispersion in the human acinus. J. Aerosol Sci., 34:405-418, 2003.